Christ Stopped at Eboli: The Story of a Year

Christ Stopped at Eboli: The Story of a Year❰KINDLE❯ ❄ Christ Stopped at Eboli: The Story of a Year Author Carlo Levi – Heartforum.co.uk It was to Lucania, a desolate land in southern Italy, that Carlo Levi a doctor, painter, philosopher, and man of letters was confined as a political prisoner because of his opposition to Italy s Fasci It was to Lucania, at Eboli: PDF/EPUB » a desolate land in southern Italy, that Carlo Levi a doctor, painter, philosopher, and man of letters was confined as a political prisoner because of his opposition to Italy s Fascist government at the start of the Christ Stopped MOBI :Ä Ethiopian war inWhile there, Levi reflected on the harsh landscape and its inhabitants, peasants who lived the same lives their ancestors had, constantly fearing black magic and the near presence of death In so doing, Levi offered a starkly beautiful and moving Stopped at Eboli: PDF/EPUB è account of a place and a people living outside the boundaries of progress and time.

Carlo Levi was an at Eboli: PDF/EPUB » Italian Jewish painter, writer, activist, anti fascist, and doctorHe is best known for his book, Cristo si fermato a Eboli Christ Stopped at Eboli , published in a memoir of his time spent in exile in Christ Stopped MOBI :Ä Lucania, Italy, after being arrested in connection with his political activism In , the book became the basis of a movie of the same name, directed by Francesco Rosi Lucania, now called Basilicata, is historically one of the poorest and most backward Stopped at Eboli: PDF/EPUB è regions of the impoverished Italian south Levi s lucid, non ideological and sympathetic description of the daily hardships experienced by the local peasants helped to propel the Problem of the South into national discourse after the end of the World War II.

Christ Stopped at Eboli: The Story of a Year ePUB ñ
  • Paperback
  • 275 pages
  • Christ Stopped at Eboli: The Story of a Year
  • Carlo Levi
  • English
  • 09 April 2019
  • 0374530092

10 thoughts on “Christ Stopped at Eboli: The Story of a Year

  1. Laura says:

    You know how once in a while you run into a book that s so good you don t want it to end, so you draw read it very slowly, drawing it out For me, this was one of those books Christ Stopped at Eboli is the story of Levi s year living in Basilicata, in the south of Italy, where Mussolini exiled him for anti Fascist activities Levi, who was a doctor by training but a painter by trade, lived among a population mostly composed of peasants, along with a few run of the mill bureaucrats The book is a You know how once in a while you run into a book that s so good you don t want it to end, so you draw read it very slowly, drawing it out For me, this was one of those books Christ Stopped at Eboli is the story of Levi s year living in Basilicata, in the south of Italy, where Mussolini exiled him for anti Fascist activities Levi, who was a doctor by training but a painter by trade, lived among a population mostly composed of peasants, along with a few run of the mill bureaucrats The book is a bit hard to classify it s part memoir, part political tract, part character study, but it s exquisitely written, especially when Levi is describing the peasants among whose company he spent a year One passage, describing his housekeeper, Giulia Giulia was a tall and shapely woman with a waist as slender as that of an amphora between her well developed chest and hips In her youth she must have had a solemn and barbaric beauty Her face was wrinkled with age and yellowed by malaria, but there were traces of former charm in its sharp, straight lines, like those of a classical temple which has lost the marbles that adorned it but kept its shape and proportions A small head, in the shape of a lengthened oval, covered with a veil, rose above her impressively large and erect body, which breathed an animal vigor Her face as a whole had a strongly archaic character, not classical in the Greek or Roman sense, but stemming from an antiquitymysterious andcruel which had sprung always from the same ground, and which was unrelated to man, but linked with the soil and its everlasting animal deities There were mingled in it cold sensuality, hidden irony, natural cruelty, impenetrable ill humor and an immense passive power, all these bound together in a stern, intelligent and malicious expression Tip of the hat, of course, to the translator, Frances Frenaye The book has been criticized by some for portraying the peasants as ignorant, pitiable simpletons I don t agree with the characterization at all Levi doesn t romanticize or patronize them, certainly, but I saw nothing arrogant or condescending in his portrayal.I usually avoid books in translation a friend of mine once likened reading translations to having sex with a condom but I m going out to buy this one tomorrow so I can read it again mine was a library copy

  2. Ahmad Sharabiani says:

    569 Cristo si fermato a Eboli Christ Stopped at Eboli, Carlo LeviChrist Stopped at Eboli Italian Cristo si fermato a Eboli is a memoir by Carlo Levi, published in 1945, giving an account of his exile from 1935 1936 to Grassano and Aliano, remote towns in southern Italy, in the region of Lucania which is known today as Basilicata In the book he gives Aliano the invented name Gagliano The title of the book comes from an expression by the people of Gagliano who say of themselves, 569 Cristo si fermato a Eboli Christ Stopped at Eboli, Carlo LeviChrist Stopped at Eboli Italian Cristo si fermato a Eboli is a memoir by Carlo Levi, published in 1945, giving an account of his exile from 1935 1936 to Grassano and Aliano, remote towns in southern Italy, in the region of Lucania which is known today as Basilicata In the book he gives Aliano the invented name Gagliano The title of the book comes from an expression by the people of Gagliano who say of themselves, Christ stopped short of here, at Eboli which means, in effect, that they feel they have been bypassed by Christianity, by morality, by history itself that they have somehow been excluded from the full human experience Levi explained that Eboli, a location in the region of Campania to the west near the seacoast, is where the road and railway to Basilicata branched away from the coastal north south routes 2011 1383 283 964363020 1389 9789643630201 1902 1975 20 1937 1935

  3. Tom LA says:

    Carlo Levi was sent in exile to a Southern Italian village current name Aliano in the mid 1930 s as a political prisoner because of his anti fascism This book is his recollection of one of the three years he spent there The village is very small, isolated, and was ridden with misery and illness What could have been a dreadfully boring memoir becomes a beautiful, poetic work of art under the artistic sensitivity of Mr Levi s pen What gives the book a true soul, and really elevates it, is th Carlo Levi was sent in exile to a Southern Italian village current name Aliano in the mid 1930 s as a political prisoner because of his anti fascism This book is his recollection of one of the three years he spent there The village is very small, isolated, and was ridden with misery and illness What could have been a dreadfully boring memoir becomes a beautiful, poetic work of art under the artistic sensitivity of Mr Levi s pen What gives the book a true soul, and really elevates it, is the deep, heartfelt sense of longing and love that Levi has for the people he lived with in this village, and in particular for the farmers He focuses on the misery of the farmers condition, their fatalistic and pessimistic worldview, their stubborness, their eternal patience, their living untouched by history s grand schemes, and uncared for by the state, by anyone These farmers live in one room houses, with their animals under their bed, and their infants hanging over their bed, in cribs On the walls, each of them have two images a black Holy Mary, and, fascinating fact, President Roosevelt That s because America , for many southern Italians in those times, was something like paradise Some came back from America, only to live the rest of their lives in regret Being Italian, I m amazed at having missed this book until now Even at school, they didn t try to shove it down my throat as they often do in Italian schools the BEST way to make you want to burn a book and go kill its author with your bare hands is to teach it at school This trick really works wonders if delivered with a nasal voice, an under average sensitivity, and a massive dose of stupidity Christianity had a very diluted flavor in these lands, that s why the farmers live with ancient pagan traditions that have nothing to do with christian religion, like magic potions, legends, in a world where people, animals and imagination are just one thing, and nothing is too complicated or dramatic, including death What Levi keeps hammering on is a sense of inevitable defeat of the farmer as a citizen of the state He sees good people being exploited by whoever has money and power, and he says that the state should be a state for the farmers as well All very well, although he often comes across as idealistic, too theoretical and naive, especially in his political reflections, articulated at the end of the book Or perhaps he wasn t naive at all, and he was just painting himself as the man who loves the humble and defensless, since by the time he wrote this book he had already joined the Italian communist party, and he was later elected in the Senate But my bet is, he was a rather idealistic man.Now, what I REALLY saw through this book, I have to admit, was a priviledged member of the Italian society of the 30s Levi s family was very wealthy , a good, well educated man with an artistic sensitivity, spending 3 years as the revered smartest guy in the village , doing nothing but painting and reading, in sunny southern Italy How s that for an alternative to prison Where do I sign up On aserious note, Levi s book is perhaps the only autobiographical book I ve read where the author doesn t talk much about himself at all Sure, a wise approach for a young politician, but also a breath of fresh air Recommended for readers who want to immerse themselves in the silence of a primitive, ancient reality that is light years from our neurotic lives of today, but at the same time feelsdeeply authentic For those farmers, and I guess for most farmers, life has always been stripped bare, to the bone A white, shining bone that we 21st century soft and plump westerners often forget A hard core experience to live through the eyes of an artistic outsider

  4. Jacob Overmark says:

    I would have liked to meet Carlo Levi.Despite being held a political prisoner in the blooming Fascism days of the mid thirties Italy, he did not turn sour At least not in his rendering of one year in one of the most rural areas of Italy.Not that he in any way withheld his stand against Fascism and how the new state religion left its mark on the country, but he made a point of meeting friend and foe with an open mind.Eboli, where once the train tracks parted, never to reach into the rural area I would have liked to meet Carlo Levi.Despite being held a political prisoner in the blooming Fascism days of the mid thirties Italy, he did not turn sour At least not in his rendering of one year in one of the most rural areas of Italy.Not that he in any way withheld his stand against Fascism and how the new state religion left its mark on the country, but he made a point of meeting friend and foe with an open mind.Eboli, where once the train tracks parted, never to reach into the rural areas of the Catania region was the signal post, the sign that from there you are,or less, on your own Rome officials may be able to burden your life with taxation and regulations, but chances that they will turn up are slim.Any development, except ill adapted agricultural plans, stop here Time stands still and has done so since the Napoleonic Wars, with very few exceptions The society is dependent on small scale business and goats, the soil so meagre it can hardly support any crops or cattle When taxes are due, there is no money and the taxman will have to make do with a goat or two Nevertheless, people are fatalistically happy Like any village Gagliano has fractions, the poor, the really poor and thewell off.Generations old wrongdoings and family feuds are kept alive, as are the beliefs of old, handily wrought into Catholicism This is the kind of place Carlo Levi is thrown into A village that welcomes the doctor painter from the north, not paying much attention to his sentence, only remarking that Someone in Rome must have it in for you.Carlo Levi describes the village and the villagers with much affection, seeing for himself how Rome has abandoned the south of Italy, deeming the people there primitive and inferior.On a broader scale, there is no political influence to be gained, the area will stay underdeveloped, malaria ridden and only suitable for producing cannon fodder for the Abyssinian War a war the southerners did not care much for anyway It is the day to day struggle that matters, and this is what Carlo Levi portrays in such a tender way.I recommend this for a glimpse into an Italy not so long ago It does not go into the atrocities of the Fascist regime under Mussolini, and it is not the intention of the book It is a love letter to someone you deep down know you will never see again

  5. Jan-Maat says:

    Christ stopped at Eboli, down on the coast, up the in the hills the world remains pre Christian This is the author s account of life in one of those hill villages while in internal exile under the fascists.Levi presents most of the villagers as being so isolated from the mainstream of Italian culture that they have a pre christian or pagan mentality or weltanschauung For example at Christmas the poor people give presents to the rich unlike in the Bible story were the Kings give presents to t Christ stopped at Eboli, down on the coast, up the in the hills the world remains pre Christian This is the author s account of life in one of those hill villages while in internal exile under the fascists.Levi presents most of the villagers as being so isolated from the mainstream of Italian culture that they have a pre christian or pagan mentality or weltanschauung For example at Christmas the poor people give presents to the rich unlike in the Bible story were the Kings give presents to the carpenter s son hence the title of the book In his view they respect violence only after he strikes his servant does she consent to have her portrait painted, yet these isolated, ancient people are also modern world travellers some have been to America and returned.He comes to see these people as the aboriginal inhabitants of Italy crushed down by the weight by a series of alien regimes from the Romans onwards to the modern Italian state who impose themselves upon the these farmers who live in material poverty, at the same time some villagers escape to America where, whenever they can they get together and go out to the countryside and round a quiet tree have a good shit just like they did at home A curious book

  6. Evan says:

    Nothing had ever come from Rome but the tax collector and speeches over the radio In Christ Stopped at Eboli, Carlo Levi describes a place that time forgot as beautifully as one could possibly describe such a place a place so misbegotten and forlorn and godless that Christ himself, so the legend went, stopped at another town and came no further Levi is the nominal protagonist of the book, since this is his memoir of one year in 1935 1936 in Aliano, Italy, renamed Gagliano in the book asNothing had ever come from Rome but the tax collector and speeches over the radio In Christ Stopped at Eboli, Carlo Levi describes a place that time forgot as beautifully as one could possibly describe such a place a place so misbegotten and forlorn and godless that Christ himself, so the legend went, stopped at another town and came no further Levi is the nominal protagonist of the book, since this is his memoir of one year in 1935 1936 in Aliano, Italy, renamed Gagliano in the book as an exiled prisoner of Mussolini s fascists, but the real protagonist is the town and the state of being in which it perpetually finds itself That state of being is manifest in the collective resignation of the downtrodden peasant residents who inhabit the dirt poor, bleak, isolated Southern Italian hilltop town, built literally on the bones of the dead a place so dreary and backward that the one day annual parade at Lent, led by an image of a blackened papier mache Madonna and a modest fireworks display that cost the peasants six months of earnings, is the highlight of their lives.Levi wrote this memoir in 1943 1944 as Italy s fascist government was crumbling and in it he recounts his forced exile in Gagliano a decade before a sentence pronounced as the result of his anti fascist sympathies Though life there was austere and hard and he was not allowed to leave the village, Levi was treated like a king by the residents it was not like a stay in Siberia Levi, who was a writer, painter and doctor, found himself to be a novelty among the peasantry and appreciated for his willingness to mix and to grasp their plight and also to render much needed medical care Even though he was not a practicing doctor at that point, his medical education was superior to that of the two official town doctors, who either from senility or incompetence actually proved to be dangerous to their patients The professional jealousies among the doctors are only the tip of the iceberg, Levi learns, in a place filled with class and tribal hatreds In Gagliano as in most Southern Italian towns at that time, malaria was a persistent scourge, often untreated and scarring a peasantry already beset by malnutrition, back breaking labor, crushing debt and the constant fear of elite authority, particularly the tax collector Levi meticulously chronicles the world of the Italian peasant, the timelessness of his plight and the apathy that comes from centuries of exploitation and high minded governments that come and go without offering solutions As this book takes place, Mussolini s barbaric Ethiopian campaign of conquest is under way a prelude to World War II , and the residents face conscription with barely a care They will either live as dogs where they are or die like dogs in Africa World War I had already hit the town disproportionately hard 50 of its sons lost from a population of barelythan 1,000 residents , yet the prospect of another war barely fazes them War is just another of the perpetually expected misfortunes over which they have no control Heaven, as Levi writes, is closer to the peasants than Rome The gnomes and devils that the peasants believe live in the caves and wells and hollows of the town arereal to them than Il Duce.My thoughts at the outset of reading this book centered around how ever so slightly dull I thought it was, with its ample descriptions of flora and fauna and mundane village activities But over the course of the book I realized that this was the book s strength, and that my patience was rewarded Some readers may feel as I did that Levi sometimes comes off as a kind of inadvertent colonialist because of the air of intellectual superiority he seems to exude when describing the peasants Levi reflects the attitudes of his time, but his broad ranging understanding of the historical, political and social dimensions that created and maintained the peasant class and the system that exploited them reveal his understanding and balanced perspective You d be hard pressed to find a book thatvividly presents a sense of life in a poor Italian village.What I also like about the book is its unsentimental tone Levi seems as detached as he is caring I think this is to his credit He understands that the peasants are part of their own problem, and that like all humans they operate out of a complex set of motivations Levi does not simplify them or condone their ignorance he neither condemns them nor praises them, just tries to understand them and to help as best he can.Along the way we learn about the rampant sexuality endemic to village life, including among the priests with their many sire scattered across the landscape, and the peasants customs, myths, habits and religious practices The description of the visiting animal surgeon s castration and ovary removal operations on the village s pigs is painful to comprehend, and so is the fate of residents with burst appendixes and other maladies who can t get the treatment they need Some of the funniest incidents in the book relate to the pompous fascist mayor s attempts to interest the peasants in the radio speeches of Il Duce, to their collective boredom.The book at different points brought to mind other great books and films with similar themes The venality of small town life reminded me of Sinclair Lewis Main Street The sense of village customs and the intercession of the outsider brought to mind the book and film of Zorba the Greek The crushing poverty in a bleak landscape reminded me of the Luis Bunuel film, Land Without Bread and the vivid descriptions of Italian peasant lifestyles reminded me of the 1978 Ermanno Olmi Italian movie, The Tree of Wooden Clogs It should also be noted here that director Francesco Rosi adapted this memoir into an excellent film in 1979 with the same title.Levi s book is an exquisitely rendered portrait of isolation, of being isolated in an isolated place, and of being in a place that seems isolated from time itself It s hard to imagine such a book being better written KR KY, posted originally in 2011 and re posted with minor edit addenda in 2017

  7. K.D. Absolutely says:

    A wonderfully written book about the sorry condition in Southern Italy before the onset of WWII by an anti fascist Italian writer, journalist, artist and doctor, Carlo Levi 1902 1975 This is the type of book that you tend to hold on to each word because the writing is so beautiful that you would not want the story to end Adding to this is the fact that this novel or memoir was actually written as a protest to Benito Il Duce Mussolini s 1883 1945 government.The title refers to the what th A wonderfully written book about the sorry condition in Southern Italy before the onset of WWII by an anti fascist Italian writer, journalist, artist and doctor, Carlo Levi 1902 1975 This is the type of book that you tend to hold on to each word because the writing is so beautiful that you would not want the story to end Adding to this is the fact that this novel or memoir was actually written as a protest to Benito Il Duce Mussolini s 1883 1945 government.The title refers to the what the peasants in Southern Italy say about themselves and the grimly poverty that they are experiencing We re not Christians, they say Christ stopped short of here, at Eboli, We re not Christians, we re not human beings we re not thought of as men but simply as beasts, beasts of burden, or even less than beasts, mere creatures of the wildMaybe a decade ago, I used to think that everything is beautiful in Italy and all of its people are devout Catholics What with the Vatican being there and practically every Catholic around the world would like to, sometime in his her life, be able to visit the place What with the beautiful tourist spots like Florence, the birthplace of Renaissance, Venice, while riding the gondolas through the canals, or Verona and see the tomb of Juliet Then I met Italian colleagues in the company where I currently work and they said that they are Catholics but not practicing Although they are proud of their country, they were the ones who told me the things that they were unhappy about their government and some parts of their history that they rather want to forget.Just like the Roman poet, Ovid, exiled by Emperor Augustus in Tomis subject of David Malouf s An Imaginary Life or Dr Jose Rizal exiled by Spanish colonial government in Dapitan or Ninoy Aquino exiled by Marcos in Laur, Carlo Levi was also thrown by Mussolini to live in a year in Lucania at the start of Abyssinian now called Ethiopian War 1935 While confined in this impoverished place, Levi took up his pen and wrote this starkly beautiful account of a place beyond hope and a people abandoned by history.Beautiful account because of the glorious writing Levi took time to describe the details of the place or the scene that reminds me of Ondaatje s The English Patient or Running In the Family But of course, Italian Levi wrote his novel first compared to these works by this Sri Lankan Canadian author that is one of my favorite novelists The irony in Levi s writing was that what he described beautifully was the sad state of that poor barren malarial town where exiles like him were thrown, where many women died during childbirth because there were not competent doctors, where people leave to America for seek for better life never to return, and so where some of the peasants think that they are not Christians but beasts

  8. Inderjit Sanghera says:

    The same sonorous, self effacing style, along with a startling profundity and wisdom, is imbued in the works of Carlos Levi as with his illustrious namesake, Primo Christ Stopped at Eboli follows the exile of Carlo Levi to the remote villages of Grassano and Gagliano in the Italian south Carlo captures the wretched, hopeless cadence of the peasant s lives, discarded by government, disregarded by society, their existence is punctuated by a deep sense of desolation Not only is the book fa The same sonorous, self effacing style, along with a startling profundity and wisdom, is imbued in the works of Carlos Levi as with his illustrious namesake, Primo Christ Stopped at Eboli follows the exile of Carlo Levi to the remote villages of Grassano and Gagliano in the Italian south Carlo captures the wretched, hopeless cadence of the peasant s lives, discarded by government, disregarded by society, their existence is punctuated by a deep sense of desolation Not only is the book fascinating from a sociological perspective, but it is also intriguing anthropologically the peasants are relics of a pre Christian, pagan society and the reader can identify the various ways in which Catholicism was able to assimilate and utilse pagan rites and symbolism to spread Christianity in many ways Christianity is just another facet of the superstitions which dominate the lives of the peasants, with its rich allegories and metaphors appealing to the peasant superstitious and pietistic natures Levi doesn t seek to fetishize the peasants, or portray them as simple, wholesome beings in the way that, for example, Tolstoy did instead they are individual with their own distinct personalities and views, weighed down by their unwitting ignorance and by the hand which life has dealt them, their problems exacerbated by the parochially minded bureaucrats and state officials who lord it over them however, for Levi, the true subjugators were the smug and self satisfied middle classes, whose worship of the state and provincial nationalism, cloaked under a superficial sense of intellectual superiority, was the root cause of the rise of fascism As well as the selfishness, ignorance and violence demonstrated by some of the peasants, Levi also brings out their every day kindness, their unpretentious wisdom and sense of honour, painting them with sympathy, but without any sense of condescension, their lives punctuated by all to brief moments of beauty and bathos But the olive trees gave no shade the sun pierced their delicate foliage as if it were laceworkas I sat on the ground, the dazzling reflection of light from the clay disappeared behind the wall the two cypresses swayed in the breeze and a cluster of roses bloomed among the graves, a strange sight in this flowerless land That the only time the peasants would ever be close to flowers was when they died was perhaps symbolic of their place in the world Levi was a painter and the dry, bleak and desolate surroundings are often transmogrified into something ethereal and beautiful nights where the countryside is bathed in moon light, everything eerie and fantastical or the little patches of green exposed by the sunlight hidden amongst the arid expanse of clay which dominated the landscape, Levi renders the lives of the peasants with the subtle, delicate touch of a calligrapher, rather than with the pompous brush of an intellectual his motivation is to humanise the peasants, rather than mock them and to depict the misery which life tried to enforce on them but which they largely, tried their best not to fight and reject

  9. Richard Newton says:

    A wonderful, evocative read The description of the peasant society Levi, as a political prisoner, was exiled to live in It can be read as a shocking reflection on poverty, exploitation and politics But mostly it is a beautiful memoire of a culture and a people What makes it so good is Levi never judges or belittles local beliefs He just states them as the ways things were He generally avoids judgement or solution apart from one short analysis towards the end of the book and his general ton A wonderful, evocative read The description of the peasant society Levi, as a political prisoner, was exiled to live in It can be read as a shocking reflection on poverty, exploitation and politics But mostly it is a beautiful memoire of a culture and a people What makes it so good is Levi never judges or belittles local beliefs He just states them as the ways things were He generally avoids judgement or solution apart from one short analysis towards the end of the book and his general tone towards the gentry and those in power.This is not a book that mythologises poverty, it shows it in its full awfulness and yet at the same time one is left poignant for this society The idea of exile is alien nowadays, and with modern technology and communications meaningless It s amazing to reflect that this was about 20th century Italy, not some distant medieval kingdom

  10. Ellie says:

    Christ Stopped at Eboli The Story of a Year is book that is difficult to classify It is the story, novelized but real, of author Carlo Levi, a non practicing doctor and full time painter who was an Italian political prisoner, sent by the fascist government in power at that time to Gagliano, a village in the poverty stricken area of southern Italy where the peasants are starving although taxed non the less and the countryside is bleak beyond belief Levi, a painter, renders the stark landscap Christ Stopped at Eboli The Story of a Year is book that is difficult to classify It is the story, novelized but real, of author Carlo Levi, a non practicing doctor and full time painter who was an Italian political prisoner, sent by the fascist government in power at that time to Gagliano, a village in the poverty stricken area of southern Italy where the peasants are starving although taxed non the less and the countryside is bleak beyond belief Levi, a painter, renders the stark landscape vividly, so that every shade of gray, every moonscape crater, even the different sounds of wind, stands out vividly in this land forgotten by time and progress As the book goes on, the cumulative power of Levi s prose strong even in translation creates an almost unbearable, powerful world in which a pig castration is a major event and where the lack of events are ironically measured inwords for time than Levi has known in any other dialect The stoicism of the peasants, their children lively, wide awake, and sad, all pushed to the edge of the violence that comes from endless impotent suffering, presents ultimately as a dignity that is heart wrenching while never glamorized or without the ignorance that is part of their pain.This is one of the most powerful and brilliant books I have ever read I would like to learn to read Italian simply to be able to read it in the original It is a passionate portrayal, rendered in vividly intense images, of an unimaginable poverty by an artist who remarks of a peasant play put on in protest of yet another restriction on their narrow lives, Where violence and law had failed them, they had recourse to art Another witness of which would be this book

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